Message Passing Interface (MPI) is a standardized and portable message-passing system designed by a group of researchers from academia and industry to function on a wide variety of parallel computers. The standard defines the syntax and semantics of a core of library routines useful to a wide range of users writing portable message-passing programs.
MPI standard has many functions in it, approximately 125. However, many of the advanced routines represent functionality that can be ignored until one pursues added flexibility (data types), robustness (nonblocking send/receive), efficiency (``ready mode"), modularity (groups, communicators), or convenience (collective operations, topologies). MPI is said to be small because there are six indispensable functions from which many useful and efficient programs can be written.
The six functions are:
- MPI_Init(Omitted in python) - Initialize MPI
- MPI_Comm_size - Find out how many processes there are
- MPI_Comm_rank - Find out which process I am
- MPI_Send - Send a message
- MPI_Recv - Receive a message
- MPI_Finalize(Omitted in python) - Terminate MPI
MPI_Init. The call to MPI_Init is required in every MPI program and must be the first MPI call. It establishes the MPI execution environment.
int MPI_Init(int *argc, char ***argv) Input: argc - Pointer to the number of arguments argv - Pointer to the argument vector
MPI_Comm_size. This routine determines the size (i.e., number of processes) of the group associated with the communicator given as an argument.
int MPI_Comm_size(MPI_Comm comm, int *size) Input: comm - communicator (handle) Ouput: size - number of processes in the group of comm
MPI_Comm_rank. The routine determines the rank (i.e., which process number am I?) of the calling process in the communicator.
int MPI_Comm_rank(MPI_Comm comm, int *rank) Input: comm - communicator (handle) Output: rank - rank of the calling process in the group of comm (integer)
MPI_Send. This routine performs a basic send; this routine may block until the message is received, depending on the specific implementation of MPI.
int MPI_Send(void* buf, int count, MPI_Datatype datatype, int dest, int tag, MPI_Comm comm) Input: buf - initial address of send buffer (choice) count - number of elements in send buffer (nonnegative integer) datatype - datatype of each send buffer element (handle) dest - rank of destination (integer) tag - message tag (integer) comm - communicator (handle)
MPI_Recv. This routine performs a basic receive.
int MPI_Recv(void* buf, int count, MPI_Datatype datatype, int source, int tag, MPI_Comm comm, MPI_Status *status) Output: buf - initial address of receive buffer status - status object, provides information about message received; status is a structure of type MPI_Status, the element status.MPI_SOURCE is the source of the message received, and the element status.MPI_TAG is the tag value. Input: count - maximum number of elements in receive buffer (integer) datatype - datatype of each receive buffer element (handle) source - rank of source (integer) tag - message tag (integer)
comm - communicator (handle)
MPI_Finalize. This routine terminates the MPI execution environment; all processes must call this routine before exiting.
MPI_Bcast. This routine broadcasts data from the process with rank "root" to all other processes of the group.
int MPI_Bcast(void* buffer, int count, MPI_Datatype datatype, int root, MPI_Comm comm) Input/Output: buffer - starting address of buffer (choice) count - number of entries in buffer (integer) datatype - data type of buffer (handle) root - rank of broadcast root (integer) comm - communicator (handle)
MPI_Reduce. This routine combines values on all processes into a single value using the operation defined by the parameter op.
int MPI_Reduce(void* sendbuf, void* recvbuf, int count, MPI_Datatype datatype, MPI_Op op, int root, MPI_Comm comm) Input: sendbuf - address of send buffer (choice) count - number of elements in send buffer (integer) datatype - data type of elements of send buffer (handle) op - reduce operation (handle) (user can create using MPI_Op_create or use predefined operations MPI_MAX, MPI_MIN, MPI_PROD, MPI_SUM, MPI_LAND, MPI_LOR, MPI_LXOR, MPI_BAND, MPI_BOR, MPI_BXOR, MPI_MAXLOC, MPI_MINLOC in place of MPI_Op op. root - rank of root process (integer) comm - communicator (handle) Output: recvbuf - address of receive buffer (choice, significant only at root )